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Original indications for knee and hip arthroplasty implants were developed decades ago and categorized conditions, such as obesity and developmental dysplasia, as contraindications, rendering their use in these patients “off-label”. The objective of this pilot study was to determine the prevalence of off-label use at our institution and test for differences in clinical and functional outcomes between patients with implants used on- and off-label.Primary knee or hip arthroplasty patients treated between January 2010 and June 2010 were studied. Revision rate, University of California Los Angeles (UCLA) activity level, functional (i.e., Hip Disability and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score or Knee Disability and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score) and Short Form-12 General Health Status were compared.Two hundred and twenty five (81.5%) patients responded to the survey (92 hips and 133 knees), 154 (68.4%) of which had off-label use of an implant. There were no differences detected between groups.This study suggests that on-label and off-label patients have similar short-term outcomes.