The contribution of autoantibodies to post-translationally modified proteins to inflammatory arthritis

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Purpose of review

This article provides an overview of the recent findings present in the field of antimodified protein antibodies and their relevance for rheumatic disease, with a focus on rheumatoid arthritis.

Recent findings

Next to anticitrullinated protein antibodies, also other antimodified protein antibodies such as anticarbamylated protein antibodies or antiacetylated protein antibodies are emerging. Likewise, their possible pathological contributions are getting detailed attention. Their possible relation to disease, both from a clinical as well as biological perspective will be summarized.


Current evidence is pointing to the notion that especially a combination of antimodified protein antibodies associates best with clinical phenotype and outcome.

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