Multiple hit infection and autoimmunity: the dysbiotic microbiota–ACPA connection in rheumatoid arthritis

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Purpose of reviewThis review highlights the most recent data obtained in this field and provides clues toward the better understanding of the close interplay between microbiota and host, leading to autoimmune diseases.Recent findingsA well-described model of microbiota/host interaction of relevance to autoimmunity is linking anti-citrullinated peptide antibody positive rheumatoid arthritis and alterations of microbiota largely concentrating on Porphyromonas gingivalis and more recently of Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans and Prevotella copri.SummaryThe perception of the classical link between microbial infection and development of autoimmune disease has evolved to the more recent concept of the connection between the microbiome/dysbiosis and breaking of immunological tolerance.

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