Spondyloarthritis: new insights into clinical aspects, translational immunology and therapeutics


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Abstract

Purpose of reviewThe spondyloarthopathies (SpA), which encompass related diseases that were originally viewed as autoimmune, are now known to have a strong innate immune or autoinflammatory initiation phase characterized by disease localization to tissue-specific sites based on the nuances and microanatomy and immunology of those sites. This review covers recent translational advances in the field of SpA.Recent findingsImaging studies in SpA continue to add support for the pivotal role of enthesitis in disease initiation and expression. Although in its infancy, there is growing evidence for microbiotal intestinal dysbiosis in ankylosing spondylitis and psoriatic arthritis. The role of cytokines beyond tumour necrosis factor (TNF) continues to grow with support for the interleukin (IL)-23/17 axis being key to disease and emergent evidence for the importance of the IL-36 pathway. The treatment of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) with vedolizumab an α4β7-integrin blocker has been associated with arthritis flares and small molecules with Janus kinase inhibition appear to be as effective as the anti-TNFs. The disparate response of different domains in SpA points towards immunological heterogeneity even within what was considered a homogeneous disease.SummaryThe clinical aspects and translational immunology and therapeutics of SpA continue to evolve and indicate the complexity of diagnosis and treatment of these conditions.

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