The effect of topical cyclosporin A on conjunctival T cells was studied in nine patients with secondary Sjögren's disease. Patients had conjunctival biopsies performed before and after a 6-week course of topical cyclosporin. Epithelium and substantia propria in the Sjögren's patients before treatment showed significantly more CD4 + cells than specimens taken from nine age- and sex-matched controls. Following treatment with topical cyclosporin, there was a significant reduction in the number of CD4 + cells in both the conjunctival epithelium and substantia propria. Despite the fact that the treatment resulted in immunopathological improvement, the clinical benefit was not as favorable. Our results suggest that topical cyclosporin may have a local immunosuppressive effect on the conjunctiva in patients with Sjögren's disease.