To determine whether human immunodeficiency virus and acquired immune deficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS), diabetes mellitus, and atopic disease are associated with herpes simplex virus (HSV) eye disease and to examine the characteristics of patients with HIV infection and HSV eye disease.Design:
Retrospective case–control study.Methods:
A hospital-based control group was matched to outpatient visits from June 1, 2010, through May 31, 2014, at Montefiore Medical Center (Bronx, NY). Inclusion criteria were a diagnosis of HSV eye disease during the study period and residency in the Bronx. Associations evaluated included age, sex, HIV/AIDS, diabetes mellitus, and atopic disease.Results:
HSV eye disease was confirmed in 70 patients, who were compared with 280 controls. Patients with ocular HSV had a greater prevalence of HIV/AIDS compared with controls (8.6% and 2.9%, respectively). Using multivariate analysis to control for age and sex, atopic dermatitis [odds ratio (OR) 3.08, 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.84–11.20] and diabetes with chronic complications (OR 2.25, 95% CI, 0.91–5.61) approached significance, whereas HIV/AIDS (OR 3.37, 95% CI, 1.09–10.40), an age less than 45 years (OR 2.89, 95% CI, 1.54–5.41), and male sex (OR 1.85, 95% CI, 1.07–3.18) were significant. In patients with HIV infection and HSV eye disease, 3 of 6 (50%) had confirmed AIDS at the time of ocular HSV diagnosis.Conclusions:
Patients with HIV infection have more than a 3-fold increased risk of developing ocular HSV.