Rates of Intraocular Pressure Elevation and Use of Topical Antihypertensive Medication After Descemet Stripping Automated Endothelial Keratoplasty

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Abstract

Purpose:

To investigate intraocular pressure (IOP) elevation and medication augmentation after Descemet stripping automated endothelial keratoplasty (DSAEK) in those with and without glaucoma.

Methods:

The records of 379 patients who underwent DSAEK at the Cleveland Clinic Foundation between January 2009 and 2014 were retrospectively reviewed. Postoperative IOP elevations were considered significant if IOP was ≥22 mm Hg on at least 1 follow-up visit or if it increased by ≥10 mm Hg from baseline.

Results:

The incidence rate of IOP elevation was 4% per person-month (confidence interval [CI], 3%–6%) in patients with preexisting glaucoma and 3% (CI, 2%–4%) in those without. Rates of medication augmentation were 4% per person-month (CI, 3%–5%) in patients with glaucoma and 1.8% (CI, 1.4%–2.4%) in those without. Incidence rates for both outcomes peaked at 1 month. Whites had nearly a 47% lower incidence of IOP elevation compared with nonwhites (P = 0.004); patients with pseudophakic bullous keratopathy had a 54% higher incidence of IOP elevation (P = 0.024); and those with Fuchs endothelial corneal dystrophy had a 36% lower incidence (P = 0.024). Patients with glaucoma had over a 2-fold higher incidence of medication augmentation compared with those without (hazard rate ratio = 2.08, P < 0.001).

Conclusions:

The incidence of post-DSAEK IOP elevation did not significantly differ by glaucoma status, although patients with glaucoma were more likely to have escalation of topical antihypertensive therapy. The incidence of IOP elevation was significantly associated with pseudophakic bullous keratopathy and nonwhite race. These patients should be followed closely in the early postoperative period, as elevated IOP can be a serious consequence of DSAEK.

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