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Vatalanib is a small-molecule tyrosine kinase inhibitor. We investigated the effects of vatalanib on the proliferation and migration of cultured human pterygial fibroblasts (HPFs).Pterygium tissues were obtained after pterygium excision surgery and subjected to primary culture. HPFs were treated with vatalanib at various concentrations. Mitomycin C (MMC) was used as a positive control. Cell proliferation and migration assays were used to investigate the effects of vatalanib. Cell death was measured using flow cytometry analysis. Western blot analysis was performed to identify signaling molecules associated with the response to vatalanib.Vatalanib inhibited both proliferation and migration of HPFs in a dose-dependent manner. Cell proliferation was significantly suppressed by vatalanib (10 and 100 μM) and MMC (0.004% and 0.04%) treatments. Migration assays revealed significant HPF delay when treated with vatalanib (1, 10, and 100 μM) and MMC (0.004% and 0.04%) compared with that in a negative control. Cell death analysis showed that high concentrations of vatalanib (100 μM) and MMC (0.004% and 0.04%) decreased cell numbers. Western blot analysis of vatalanib-treated cells showed vascular endothelial growth factor and transforming growth factor-β significantly reduced, but there was no alteration in p53 protein levels in HPFs.These results indicate that vatalanib significantly suppressed the proliferation and migration of HPFs by decreasing vascular endothelial growth factor and transforming growth factor-β. Vatalanib showed less toxicity than that of MMC. Based on these results, vatalanib may potentially serve as a new adjuvant treatment after pterygium excision surgery.