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To investigate mutations of the human transforming growth factor beta-induced gene (TGFBI), transforming growth factor–beta-induced gene product (βig-h3, keratoepithelin), in Japanese patients with Avellino corneal dystrophy (ACD), lattice corneal dystrophy (LCD), granular corneal dystrophy (GCD), and Reis-Bücklers corneal dystrophy (RBCD).Genomic DNA was extracted from the peripheral blood of 75 patients and 7 unaffected relatives from 60 families with ACD, 34 patients and 8 unaffected relatives from 21 families with LCD, 4 patients and 4 unaffected relatives from 4 families with GCD, and 4 patients and an unaffected relative from 3 families with RBCD. Fifty normal volunteers served as controls. Exons 4, 11, and 12 of the TGFBI gene were amplified by polymerase chain reaction and were directly sequenced.Six different heterozygous missense mutations were detected in codons R124, L518, L527, and R555 of the TGFBI gene in the 117 patients from 88 families. A R124H mutation was detected in the patients with ACD. A R124C mutation was detected in the patients with LCD type 1 (LCD1), L518P was in atypical LCD1, and L527R in LCD with opacities deep in stroma. A R555W mutation was detected in the patients with GCD. A R555Q mutation was detected in the patients with RBCD.We conclude that codons R124 and R555 of the TGFBI gene are also hot spots in Japanese patients with ACD, LCD, GCD, and RBCD. Many Japanese patients with CD had ACD with R124H mutation. GCD with R555W mutation was rare.