Therapeutic Efficacy of Topical Epigallocatechin Gallate in Murine Dry Eye


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Abstract

Objective:To study the efficacy of topical epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) for the treatment of dry eye disease (DED).Methods:Seven- to 8-week-old female C57BL/6 mice were housed in the controlled environment chamber to induce DED. Topical 0.01% or 0.1% EGCG, or vehicle, was applied to the eyes of DED mice. Corneal fluorescein staining and the number of corneal CD11b+ cells were assessed in the different groups. Expression of interleukin-1β, tumor necrosis factor-α, chemokine ligand 2, and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-A/C/D was evaluated by real-time polymerase chain reaction in the corneas at day 9. Corneas were stained for lymphatic vessel endothelial hyaluronan receptor (LYVE)-1 to evaluate lymphangiogenesis, and the terminal transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) assay was used to evaluate apoptosis of corneal epithelial cells.Results:Treatment with 0.1% EGCG showed a significant decrease in corneal fluorescein staining compared with the vehicle (24.6%, P = 0.001) and untreated controls (41.9%, P < 0.001). A significant decrease in the number of CD11b+ cells was observed in 0.1% EGCG–treated eyes, compared with the vehicle in the peripheral (23.3%, P = 0.001) and central (26.1%, P = 0.009) corneas. Treatment with 0.1% EGCG was associated with a significant decrease in the corneal expression of interleukin-1β (P = 0.029) and chemokine ligand 2 (P = 0.001) compared with the vehicle and in VEGF-A and VEGF-D levels compared with the untreated group (P = 0.007 and P = 0.048, respectively). EGCG 0.01% also showed a decrease in inflammation at the molecular level but no significant changes in the clinical signs of DED. No cellular toxicity to the corneal epithelium was observed with 0.01% or 0.1% EGCG.Conclusions:Topical EGCG treatment is able to reduce the clinical signs and inflammatory changes in DED by suppressing the inflammatory cytokine expression and infiltration of CD11b+ cells in the cornea.

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