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Corneal neovascularization (CNV) is associated with Chlamydia trachomatis. The minimal components of bacterial cell walls are recognized by nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-containing protein (Nod), which is important for host defense—a mechanism manifested in human corneal cells. We aimed to examine whether Nod stimulation is associated with CNV.Three groups of mice with alkali-induced CNV were topically treated with tripeptide L-Ala-γ-D-Glu-meso-diaminopimelic acid (Tri-DAP, a Nod1 agonist), muramyl dipeptide (a Nod2 agonist), or phosphate-buffered saline twice daily for 8 days. The time course responses were quantified using biomicroscopic examinations and immunohistochemistry. Angiogenic factor expression was evaluated by quantitative real-time reverse transcription–polymerase chain reaction. To confirm the involvement of Nod1 signaling in CNV, RICK (an essential molecule in Nod signaling)-knockout mice treated with Tri-DAP were examined biomicroscopically and immunohistochemically 8 days after injury.According to the biomicroscopic camera images and histology, Tri-DAP and muramyl dipeptide promoted CNV. Significantly, Tri-DAP increased the number and size of the neovascularized areas. The messenger RNA expression level of vascular endothelial growth factor was elevated in the Tri-DAP–treated mice after alkali injury. Compared with wild-type mice, CNV was attenuated in RICK-deficient mice treated with Tri-DAP.These data suggest that Nod1 stimulation is an important inducer of CNV and that Nod1 might be useful in the development of CNV therapies.