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To report the outcomes of Boston keratoprosthesis (K-pro) type I implantation for congenital aniridia.A retrospective review of the medical records of every patient with congenital aniridia who underwent Boston K-pro type I implantation at the University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics from January 1, 2009, through December 31, 2011 was performed. The main outcome measures were visual acuity, graft retention, and postoperative complications.A total of 7 eyes (7 patients) met the inclusion criteria. The mean patient age was 52 years (range, 12–85 years). The preoperative visual acuity was 20/1600 in 6 eyes (85.7%) and hand motions in 1 eye (14.3%). After a median follow-up period of 18 months (range, 3–30 months), the median final best spectacle-corrected visual acuity was 20/200 (range, 20/100 to light perception). This included 2 eyes (28.6%) that were 20/100 and 5 eyes (71.4%) that were better than 20/300. Compared with the preoperative best spectacle-corrected visual acuity, the final vision was improved in 6 eyes (85.7%) and worse in 1 eye (14.3%). The K-pro graft was retained in all 7 eyes (100%). The most common complication was the formation of a retroprosthetic membrane in 3 eyes (42.9%), none of which required either a YAG capsulotomy or a vitrectomy. One eye (14.3%) developed a wound dehiscence that required surgical repair.The Boston K-pro type I is a good option for the visual rehabilitation of eyes with congenital aniridia.