Ceramic Endoprosthesis in Total Hip Arthroplasty

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Abstract

Aluminia-on-aluminia hip prosthesis with titanium alloy stem was used in 255 cases, for 143 patients with cemented acetabular cup and 112 with an uncemented screw cup. The average age of the patients was 62 years. Of the patients, 35 were treated bilaterally. The indication for surgery was osteoarthritis in 186 cases, fractures and nonunions of the hip joint in 34 cases, and congenital dislocations of the hip joint in 16 cases. Previous surgery of the hip joint was recorded for 43 cases. All procedures were primary arthroplasties. Only personal clinical examinations together with radiographic studies were accepted as clinical data. Three patients failed to show up for routine follow-up evaluation and these were excluded from the series. Revision operation was classified as failure. The indications for revision were aseptic loosening, late infection, and fracture of the acrylic cement resulting in loosening of the acetabular or femoral component. The acetabular component was cemented in 143 patients and the mean follow-up period for these patients was 6.7 years (range, 1–12 years). In this series, a revision operation was undertaken for 16 patients (11%). In 12 cases, broken acrylic cement resulted in acetabular aseptic loosening. In the series of 112 patients with uncemented titanium screw cup, the mean follow-up period was 3.6 years (range, 1–7 years) and a revision operation was undertaken in seven cases (7%). In two, the indication was late infection; in one, technical failure; and in two, progression of Pigmented villonodular synovitis. Acetabular aseptic loosening resulted in revision in only two cases. With cementless acetabular component bone transplantation is indicated. In a defective acetabulum, a cemented socket is recommended along with autogeneic bone transplantation. The femoral titanium component fixed to the bone with antibiotic-loaded Palacos Gentamycin cement resulted in a minimal failure rate, with only three revisions in 255 cases. No wear problems have so far been verified in these 255 patients with ceramic endoprostheses.

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