Plasma spray coatings on titanium alloy total hip replacements (THRs) provide a viable alternative to sintered bead or diffusion-bonded fiber metal ingrowth surfaces. The plasma spray process enables the titanium alloy implant to retain 90% of its fatigue strength, as opposed to less than 50% for sintered or diffusion-bonded cementless devices. Laboratory and clinical evidence suggest that plasma spray cementless THRs perform as well, if not better, than other cementless implants. Clinical trials have demonstrated the superiority of a plasma spray cementless THR (Mallory-Head) over a sintered bead cementless THR (PCA) and the equivalent results to a cemented THR. Plasma spray coatings on titanium alloy hip replacements provide a safe, predictable coating for cementless fixation of THRs in the short to medium range of follow-up periods.