Pioneering Efforts for Minority Appointments and Academic Surgery: A Narrative

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The author gives a narrative chronologic explanation for the early inclusion of African Americans and other minorities into the Yale University Orthopaedic Surgical Residency Training Program. The author's early isolation from racial problems living in rural Nebraska and the paucity of racial friction at the University of Nebraska gave him a more neutral or positive view of other cultures. Sudden exposure to the racial tension and police brutality toward African Americans in Boston followed by the well defined racial bias in the Southern city of Baltimore showed the plight of minorities. At that same time the author encountered many gentle and extremely intelligent African Americans who performed outstanding medical tasks for the Johns Hopkins Hospital hospital with little educational background. The author's experience with Shirley Moore and Augustus White at Yale made it possible to recruit a diverse group of gifted and loyal resident staff. The high number of academic appointments in minority and majority residents has evolved from the Academic Training and Research Program and a special selection process for choosing residents.

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