Current Etiologies and Modes of Failure in Total Knee Arthroplasty Revision

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Although total knee arthroplasty is a very effective intervention and increasing in prevalence, failures do occur. We studied patients presenting for total knee arthroplasty revision to determine any modifiable causes of failure, both short and long term, and where future efforts should be directed to reduce the incidence of failure. A multicenter prospective observational cohort study of 318 consecutive patients, with minimum 1 year follow-up, undergoing total knee arthroplasty revision was performed. Associations between modes of failure were also assessed. The mean time from primary procedure to total knee arthroplasty revision was 7.9 years. Many patients (64.4%) had more than one cause of failure. Thirty-one percent of patients were early (< 2 years) failures at a mean of 11 months. These had a higher prevalence of infection, perioperative factors and comorbidities. Late failures occurred at a mean of 119.2 months. Other major causes of failure included instability (28.9%), wear (24.5%) and component loosening suggesting the importance of modifications in technique, implants and other areas. Application of these findings will ultimately reduce revision numbers through continued refinement of total knee arthroplasty practice and through further specific investigation of these modes of failure.

Level of Evidence: Therapeutic study, level II-2 (prospective study). See the Guidelines for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.

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