We analyzed the tumor-related questions on the Orthopaedic In-Training Examinations (OITE) over a 5-year period (2002-2006). Each year approximately 27 of the 275 examination questions (10%) are tumor-related. Malignant conditions are tested more than benign ones (1.2:1). Approximately nine questions per year are immediate recall of specific entities, while eight questions tested the examinees' ability to establish a diagnosis from imaging studies with or without biopsy material. Participants were required to establish a diagnosis from imaging studies and/or biopsy material and then choose treatment an average of seven times per examination. The examinees' abilities in evaluation and decision making of patients was only tested an average of twice during each examination. Analysis of the content and type of question on the OITE might enable trainees to prepare more systematically. We determined the content, classified the questions, and quantified the interpretive material.