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Pathologic fractures of the femur resulting from metastasis severely increase mortality in patients with nonsmall cell lung cancer (NSCLC). However, factors associated with early mortality after surgery have not been elucidated.The purpose of this study was to identify clinical and laboratory factors available to surgeons before surgery for a metastatic femur in patients with metastatic lung cancer that might be associated with mortality at 1 and 3 months.Between 2010 and 2014 we treated 126 patients for pathologic fracture of the femur caused by NSCLC. Of those, complete data sets for the parameters of interest (including clinical factors, laboratory factors, and survivorship) were available in 105 (83%). The factors we considered included sex, age, fracture location, surgical procedure, postoperative complications, blood cell counts, serum biomarkers, genetic alterations of primary cancer, chemotherapeutic agents, preoperative radiation therapy, pleural effusion, bone and internal organ metastasis, performance scores, and medical center where the treatment was performed. Multivariate logistic regression was performed to identify factors associated with mortality at 1 and 3 months.Intertrochanteric location was associated with a higher risk of death (odds ratio [OR], 17.0; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.65-109.5), lower serum albumin level was associated with an increased risk of death (OR, 0.13; 95% CI, 0.028-0.60), and availability of a suitable chemotherapeutic target agent was associated with a lower risk of death (OR, 0.28; 95% CI, 0.08-0.91) within 3 months of surgery. Undergoing reconstruction with an endoprosthesis was associated with a higher risk of death (OR, 48.3; 95% CI, 1.7-1329) and elevated serum leukocyte count (OR, 1.2; 95% CI, 1.0-1.4) and elevated alanine aminotransferase (ALT) were associated with a higher risk of death (OR, 1.1; 95% CI, 1.0-1.2) within 1 month of surgery.Although the risk factors for early mortality need to be validated by prospective studies, surgical options need to be reconsidered in patients with femoral metastases from NSCLS showing high ALT or leukocytosis on the preoperative blood test.Level III, prognostic study.