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Adhesive capsulitis is common and can cause stiffness and pain. Diabetes and dyslipidemia are known to be associated with adhesive capsulitis. However, there is no report of any association between serum lipid profiles and adhesive capsulitis accompanied by diabetes.Which serum lipid abnormalities are associated with adhesive capsulitis accompanied by diabetes?This is a case-control study with two control groups. Our case group included 37 patients with newly diagnosed adhesive capsulitis accompanied by newly diagnosed diabetes who had no other diagnosed systemic diseases or rotator cuff tears. The two control groups each had 111 age- and sex-matched individuals with normal shoulder function (bilaterally pain-free, with full range of motion and no shoulder muscle weakness), no thyroid dysfunction, and no previously diagnosed systemic diseases. Individuals in the first control group had neither adhesive capsulitis nor diabetes. Individuals in the second control group had newly diagnosed diabetes without adhesive capsulitis. We evaluated any association between adhesive capsulitis accompanied by diabetes and serum lipid profile, including total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein (LDL), high-density lipoprotein (HDL), triglycerides, and nonhigh-density lipoprotein (nonHDL). Conditional logistic regression analysis was used to evaluate the strengths of associations between serum lipid levels and adhesive capsulitis accompanied by diabetes, as determined by odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs).Low-density lipoprotein and nonHDL were associated with adhesive capsulitis accompanied by diabetes. Specifically, patients with adhesive capsulitis and diabetes had greater odds ratios of hyperlow-density lipoproteinemia when compared with individuals with neither adhesive capsulitis nor diabetes (OR, 3.19; 95% CI, 1.21–8.38; p = 0.019) and when compared with individuals without adhesive capsulitis but with newly diagnosed diabetes (OR, 5.76; 95% CI, 1.67–19.83; p = 0.005). Similarly, patients with adhesive capsulitis accompanied by diabetes had greater odds ratios of hypernonhigh-density lipoproteinemia when compared with individuals with neither adhesive capsulitis nor diabetes (OR, 7.39; 95% CI, 2.72–20.09; p < 0.001) and when compared with individuals without adhesive capsulitis but with newly diagnosed diabetes (OR, 3.26; 95% CI, 1.40–7.61; p = 0.006).Inflammatory lipoproteinemias, particularly hyperlow-density lipoproteinemia and hypernonhigh-density lipoproteinemia, are associated with adhesive capsulitis accompanied by diabetes. Further research is needed to evaluate whether inflammatory lipoproteinemias are a cause, a related cofactor, or an aggravating factor in the development of adhesive capsulitis in people who have diabetes.Level III, prognostic study.