Advances in delivery of ambulatory autologous stem cell transplantation for multiple myeloma

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Purpose of reviewAutologous stem cell transplantation (ASCT) is generally performed in the inpatient setting in its entirety. Several centers have demonstrated the feasibility of performing ASCT for myeloma in the ambulatory setting. We review the safety, cost-effectiveness, complications and outcomes of outpatient ASCT for myeloma.Recent findingsPublished studies are heterogeneous but suggest that outpatient ASCT for myeloma is cost-effective and associated with a shorter or no initial hospitalization, albeit there is a high rate of readmission for complications. The transplant-related mortality rate is less than 1%. Stringent patient selection criteria that include emphasis on functional status, caregiving support and psychosocial aspects for each patient are critical for identifying patients most appropriate for ASCT in the ambulatory setting. There exists considerable variability in outpatient transplant models and supportive care guidelines and data do not support preference for one delivery model over another. Survival and other transplant-related outcomes have not been reported widely and whether patients fare better with outpatient transplantation remains to be explored.SummaryOutpatient ASCT for multiple myeloma is feasible and well tolerated in selected patients. Several care models for outpatient ASCT exist and can be implemented based on transplant resources and preference.

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