AbstractPurpose of review
To provide an overview on the available clinical and pathological factors in high-risk nonmuscle invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC) patients that help to approximate the risk of progression to muscle invasion and identify ‘the’ patients requiring timely cystectomy. The value of a high-quality transurethral tumor resection is pointed out. Outcomes following radical cystectomy are compared with a primarily bladder preserving strategy.Recent findings
Carcinoma in situ within the prostatic urethra of NMIBC patients impacts on patient's outcome. Therefore, biopsies taken from the prostatic urethra improve the initial tumor staging accuracy. Lamina propria substaging may provide more detailed prognostic information. Lympho-vascular invasion within the transurethral resection specimen may help to detect patients who benefit from timely cystectomy. Recent findings from patients undergoing radical cystectomy including super-extended lymphadenectomy for clinically NMIBC confirm the substantial rate (25%) of tumor understaging. The fact that almost 10% were found to harbor lymph node metastases underlines the necessity to perform a meticulous lymphadenectomy in NMIBC patients undergoing radical cystectomy.Summary
High-quality transurethral bladder tumor resection including underlying muscle fibers is of utmost importance. Nevertheless, tumor understaging remains an issue of concern and warrants the value of a second transurethral resection in high-risk NMIBC patients. There is a persisting lack of rigid therapeutic recommendations in patients with high-risk NMIBC. Instead, treatment strategy is based on individual risk factors. However, irrespective of initial treatment strategy, there is a subgroup of high-risk NMIBC patients with progressive disease, leading almost inevitably to death.