Prostate biopsy: guidelines and evidence

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Purpose of reviewTo summarize the highest level evidence that was acquired within the last years, with regard to diagnosis of prostate cancer. With many secondary diagnostic tools becoming available, and not being mentioned in the guidelines, this review is meant to assist clinical decision-making in initial biopsy and rebiopsy settings.Recent findingsThe PROMIS Trial delivered level 1b evidence about the diagnostic accuracy of prostate multiparametric MRI (mpMRI) as a triage tool for prostate biopsy. MRI-ultrasound-fusions-targeted biopsy has been evaluated and compared with the standard of care, and has been found to have a higher cancer detection rate. The different approaches to MRI-guided biopsies do not show significant differences. Urine biomarkers analysing RNA as well as genetic assays of biopsy specimen have also shown to be helpful in the decision to (re-)biopsy a patient, especially in combination with MRI.SummaryPatients and doctors alike have been trying to avoid prostate biopsies, the risks, and the side effects of potential overtreatment. Imaging and other biomarkers are used to increase diagnostic accuracy, yielding more precise information to act on. None of these secondary diagnostic tools are perfect, yet they can, and should be used if one stays aware of their limitations.

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