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Urolithiasis is a very common condition, which can be accompanied by serious complications. Diagnosis, treatment, and prevention are of great cost for national health systems. Many studies have been published about the role of diet in both stone formation and prevention. The aim of this review is to summarize the most recent developments that correlate diet to lithiasis.Recurrent stone formers should undergo metabolic evaluation and stone chemical analysis. Current evidence propose difference approaches based on the metabolic disorder that is diagnosed. Diet could have a detrimental role in the prevention of recurrences. Prevention advises include increased fluid uptake, vegetables and fruit intake but decreased sugar, salt, and meat consumption.The analysis of the food contents and their role to lithogenesis prevention are of great importance. Modifying diet to prevent stones could help many people who suffer from lithiasis to avoid recurrence and the consequences. Furthermore, the cost for diagnosis and treatment could be significantly reduced. Therefore, the field of dietary factors in lithogenesis should be further investigated.