Congenital and acquired diseases related to stone formation

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Abstract

Purpose of review

To summarize the latest findings of congenital and acquired diseases related to stone formation and help understanding the multitude of cofactors related to urolithiasis.

Recent findings

Urolithiasis is related to a broad spectrum of congenital and acquired diseases and its management varies according to the stone type, underlying disease or recurrence rate, but it also changes according to recent findings and developments. As prevalence of urolithiasis is constantly increasing, identification of high-risk stone formers and early treatment is essential. Therefore, genetic evaluation like whole exome sequencing becomes a pertinent part of further diagnostics.

Summary

Stone formation is a very heterogeneous pathomechanism. This prompt us to look at every patient individually particularly in high-risk patients, including stone and 24-h-urine analysis and additional diagnostic work-up based on stone type or underlying disease.

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