Update on epidemiologic considerations and treatment trends in testicular cancer

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Purpose of reviewWe aim to give an overview of the epidemiology and treatment trends of testicular germ cell tumors (TGCTs), with an emphasis on recent trends.Recent findingsThe incidence of TGCT appears to be increasing, particularly in developed countries, although the reasons are not well understood. There is evidence of racial differences in predisposition to TGCT, with white men having highest risk and men of African or Asian descent having lower risk. In the United States, the incidence of TGCT among Hispanics appears to be rising most quickly. A recent genomic analysis indicates there is no highly penetrant major TGCT susceptibility gene. Incorporation of multidisciplinary care has led to excellent long-term cure rates; however, access to care and insurance remains barriers in young men. Recent treatment trends have centered on maximizing oncologic outcomes while minimizing long-term morbidity.SummaryEmerging population-level data provide critical insight into the evolving demographics of TGCT, which may allow for elucidation of biologic and environmental determinants of TGCT. Further, identification of socioeconomic barriers to excellent clinical outcomes will allow for targeted interventions to patients with unique demographic and socioeconomic considerations. Treatment trend analyses suggest that the field is moving toward minimizing treatment-related morbidity.

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