Integration of PSMA-targeted PET imaging into the armamentarium for detecting clinically significant prostate cancer

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Purpose of reviewTo explore the current state of using prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA)-targeted PET imaging to aid in the diagnosis of clinically significant prostate cancer.Recent findingsProstate-specific antigen screening remains controversial, as it is associated with the underdetection of clinically significant prostate cancer as well as the overdetection and subsequent overtreatment of clinically insignificant disease. A diagnostic test that can accurately assess the presence of clinically significant prostate cancer and avoid detection of low-risk tumors is needed. Multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging (mpMRI) can aid in the detection of clinically significant prostate cancer and can be used with fusion-based biopsy platforms to target biopsies to specific lesions. However, there are several limitations of mpMRI including a modest negative predictive value for high-grade cancer. PSMA-targeted PET imaging has shown promise as a noninvasive test to aid in the detection of clinically significant prostate cancer while providing anatomical information to guide targeted biopsies. PSMA-targeted PET in combination with mpMRI offers a higher degree of diagnostic accuracy for imaging localized prostate cancer than either modality alone.SummaryPSMA-targeted PET imaging can aid in the identification of men with clinically significant prostate cancer. Further research is needed to determine the full potential of PSMA-targeted imaging in both the detection and treatment of localized prostate cancer.

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