Current status and progress of focal therapy in Asia

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Purpose of reviewWith the increasing incidence of low-to-intermediate risk of prostate cancer (PCa) by the introduction of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) screening, focal therapy has become one of the promising treatment options in the world. In Asia, same movement are occurring using several technologies including cryoablation, high-intensity focused ultrasound, brachytherapy and irreversible electroporation. However, these are still not common strategies to treat organ-confined PCa. The purpose of this review is to summarize the most updated experience and future direction of focal therapy in Asian countries.Recent findingsThe prevalence and diagnosis of PCa are increasing in Asian countries. This increase is related to various factors including the widespread implementation of PSA testing and lifestyle changes to more Westernized diets. With the increasing detection rate of early stage PCa, overdetection and overtreatment are recognized even in Asia. In this setting, accumulating data on multiparametric MRI and MRI-targeted biopsy as well as MRI–transrectal ultrasound (TRUS) fusion biopsy suggest the potential in improving the detection of clinically significant PCa in Asia. Furthermore, targeted focal therapy has emerged as a promising treatment strategy aiming for both providing oncological outcome and maintaining functional preservation in many Asian countries.SummaryAt present, focal therapy is not a current standard choice for the treatment of localized PCa in Asian countries. However, with the increase of localized PCa and patient's preference for less invasive treatment with preservation of organ-function, focal therapy should become a definite treatment option for localized PCa in Asia.

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