Current concept of transurethral resection of bladder cancer: from re-transurethral resection of bladder cancer to en-bloc resection

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Purpose of reviewTransurethral resection of bladder cancer (TURB) is the critical step in the management of nonmuscle invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC). This review presents new improvements in the strategy and technique of TURB as well as in technological developments used for tumour visualization and removal.Recent findingsThe goal of TURB is to perform complete resection of NMIBC. Tumor visualization during procedure can be improved by enhanced optical technologies. Fluorescence-guided photodynamic diagnosis (PDD) and narrow-band imaging (NBI) used during TURB can improve tumour detection and potentially reduce recurrence rate, their influence on progression, however, remains controversial. TURB can be performed using monopolar or bipolar electrocautery without significant differences in results or safety. To overcome limitations of traditional TURB, the technique of en-bloc resection was introduced to improve the quality of tumour removal. In selected cases, an early re-resection (re-TURB) within 2–6 weeks after initial procedure is recommended.SummaryTURB is a fundamental step in diagnosis and treatment of NMIBC. Urologists should be aware of promising innovations including new imaging and surgical techniques and their potential benefits. Hopefully, new technologies and performance of TURB bring improved outcomes, which can alter the indication criteria for re-TURB.

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