Cystic fibrosis is a complex disease entity that presents considerable lifelong challenges. Implementation of medical and surgical treatment options involves multisystem interventions to prevent and treat lung and gastrointestinal manifestations of cystic fibrosis and associated comorbidities. From birth through adulthood, cystic fibrosis care entails a longitudinal regimen aimed at achieving relief of disease symptoms and enhanced life expectancy. With increased knowledge of the molecular behavior of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) in health and disease, clinical practice has been enriched by the prospect of novel strategies, including mutation-specific drug and gene therapy targeting restoration of corrupted transepithelial ion transport. Emerging paradigms of comprehensive care increasingly enable personalized solutions to address the root cause of disease-transforming management options for individuals with cystic fibrosis.