Using hepatitis C virus (HCV) and interferon (IFN) resistance as a proof of concept, we have devised a new method for calculating the effect of a drug on a viral population, as well as the resistance of the population's individual intrahost variants. By means of next-generation sequencing, HCV variants were obtained from sera collected at nine time points from 16 patients during the first 48 h after injection of IFN-α. IFN-resistance coefficients were calculated for individual variants using changes in their relative frequencies, and for the entire intrahost viral population using changes in viral titer. Population-wide resistance and presence of IFN-resistant variants were highly associated with pegylated IFN-α2a/ribavirin treatment outcome at week 12 (P= 3.78 × 10−5 and 0.0114, respectively). This new method allows an accurate measurement of resistance based solely on changes in viral titer or the relative frequency of intrahost viral variants during a short observation time.