Our objective was to support initial eltrombopag doses and dose titration based on modeling and simulation of plasma exposure and platelet count response in pediatric patients aged 1–17 years with previously treated chronic immune thrombocytopenia enrolled in two clinical studies. Data from 168 pediatric patients were used to develop a life-span population pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic model including three pharmacokinetic and four pharmacodynamic compartments enabling simulation of platelet counts for various starting doses and dose titration schedules. This work supported initial eltrombopag doses of 50 mg once daily (q.d.) for non-Asian patients aged ≥ 6 years and 25 mg q.d. for Asian patients, regardless of age, and for all patients aged 1–5 years, regardless of ethnic origin. Doses were escalated at 2-week intervals or reduced as needed according to each patient's platelet counts to both minimize the time to achieve target platelet counts and mitigate thrombocytosis. Clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT00908037, NCT01520909.