Previous studies have demonstrated that expression of p193 and p53 mutants with dominant-interfering activities renders embryonic stem cell–derived cardiomyocytes responsive to the growth promoting activities of the E1A viral oncoproteins. In this study, the effects of p53 and p193 antagonization on cardiomyocyte cell cycle activity in normal and infarcted hearts were examined. Transgenic mice expressing the p193 and/or the p53 dominant-interfering mutants in the heart were generated. Transgene expression had no effect on cardiomyocyte cell cycle activity in uninjured adult hearts. In contrast expression of either transgene resulted in a marked induction of cardiomyocyte cell cycle activity at the infarct border zone at 4 weeks after permanent coronary artery occlusion. Expression of the p193 dominant-interfering mutant was also associated with an induction of cardiomyocyte DNA synthesis in the interventricular septa of infarcted hearts. A concomitant and marked reduction in hypertrophic cardiomyocyte growth was observed in the septa of hearts expressing the p193 dominant-interfering transgene, suggesting that cell cycle activation might partially counteract the adverse ventricular remodeling that occurs after infarction. Collectively these data suggest that antagonization of p193 and p53 activity relaxes the otherwise stringent regulation of cardiomyocyte cell cycle reentry in the injured adult heart.