Emerging evidence illustrates the importance of the positive transcription elongation factor (P-TEF)b in control of global RNA synthesis, which constitutes a major feature of the compensatory response to diverse hypertrophic stimuli in cardiomyocytes. P-TEFb complex, composed of cyclin T and cdk9, is critical for elongation of nascent RNA chains via phosphorylation of the carboxyl-terminal domain of RNA polymerase (Pol) II. We and others have shown that the activity of P-TEFb is inhibited by its association with cardiac lineage protein (CLP)-1, the mouse homolog of human HEXIM1, in various physiological and pathological conditions. To investigate the mechanism of control of P-TEFb activity by CLP-1 in cardiac hypertrophy, we used a transgenic mouse model of hypertrophy caused by overexpression of calcineurin in the heart. We observed that the level of CLP-1 associated with P-TEFb was reduced markedly in hypertrophic hearts. We also generated bigenic mice (MHC–cyclin T1/CLP-1+/−) by crossing MHC–cyclin T1 transgenic mice with CLP-1 heterozygote. The bigenic mice exhibit enhanced susceptibility to hypertrophy that is accompanied with an increase in cdk9 activity via an increase in serine 2 phosphorylation of carboxyl-terminal domain and an increase in GLUT1/GLUT4 ratio. These mice have compensated systolic function without evidence of fibrosis and reduced lifespan. These data suggest that the reduced level of CLP-1 introduced in the background of elevated levels of cyclin T1 elevates derepression of P-TEFb activity and emphasizes the importance of the role of CLP-1 in the mechanism governing compensatory hypertrophy in cardiomyocytes.