Abnormal Propagation of Calcium Waves and Ultrastructural Remodeling in Recessive Catecholaminergic Polymorphic Ventricular Tachycardia

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Abstract

Rationale:

The recessive form of catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia is caused by mutations in the cardiac calsequestrin-2 gene; this variant of catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia is less well characterized than the autosomal-dominant form caused by mutations in the ryanodine receptor-2 gene.

Objective:

We characterized the intracellular Ca2+ homeostasis, electrophysiological properties, and ultrastructural features of the Ca2+ release units in the homozygous calsequestrin 2-R33Q knock-in mouse model (R33Q) R33Q knock-in mouse model.

Methods and Results:

We studied isolated R33Q and wild-type ventricular myocytes and observed properties not previously identified in a catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia model. As compared with wild-type cells, R33Q myocytes (1) show spontaneous Ca2+ waves unable to propagate as cell-wide waves; (2) show smaller Ca2+sparks with shortened coupling intervals, suggesting a reduced refractoriness of Ca2+ release events; (3) have a reduction of the area of membrane contact, of the junctions between junctional sarcoplasmic reticulum and T tubules (couplons), and of junctional sarcoplasmic reticulum volume; (4) have a propensity to develop phase 2 to 4 afterdepolarizations that can elicit triggered beats; and (5) involve viral gene transfer with wild-type cardiac calsequestrin-2 that is able to normalize structural abnormalities and to restore cell-wide calcium wave propagation.

Conclusions:

Our data show that homozygous cardiac calsequestrin-2–R33Q myocytes develop spontaneous Ca2+ release events with a broad range of intervals coupled to preceding beats, leading to the formation of early and delayed afterdepolarizations. They also display a major disruption of the Ca2+ release unit architecture that leads to fragmentation of spontaneous Ca2+ waves. We propose that these 2 substrates in R33Q myocytes synergize to provide a new arrhythmogenic mechanism for catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia.

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