MicroRNA (miR)-150 is down-regulated in patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI), atrial fibrillation, dilated and ischemic cardiomyopathy as well as in various mouse heart failure (HF) models. Circulating miR-150 has been recently proposed as a better biomarker of HF than clinically used markers such as brain natriuretic peptide. We recently showed that β-arrestin1-biased β1-adrenergic receptor (β1AR) cardioprotective signaling activated by the β-arrestin-biased β-blocker, carvedilol (Carv) stimulates the processing of miR-150 in the heart (see figure A). However, the potential role of miR-150 in ischemic injury and HF is unknown. Here, we show that genetic deletion of miR-150 in mice causes abnormalities in cardiac structural and functional remodeling after MI. The cardioprotective roles of miR-150 during ischemic injury were attributed to repression of the pro-apoptotic genes egr2 (zinc binding transcription factor induced by ischemia) and p2x7r (pro-inflammatory ATP receptor) [see figure B]. These findings reveal a pivotal role for miR-150 as a regulator of cardiomyocyte survival during cardiac injury. In conclusion, our study will help to stratify HF patients that may respond better to β-arrestin-biased β-blockers, which is guided by circulating levels of miR-150.