Mutations in ATP2B1 encoding the ubiquitous calcium extrusion pump Plasma Membrane Calcium ATPase 1 (PMCA1) have recently identified it as having the strongest association of any gene to hypertension, yet the role of PMCA1 in the pressure-overloaded heart is not known. To investigate this we generated a novel mouse line carrying cardiomyocyte-specific deletion of PMCA1 (PMCA1cko) and challenged them with transverse aortic constriction (TAC) alongside littermate ‘floxed’ controls (PMCA1f/f). After two weeks, echocardiographic analysis revealed signs of systolic dysfunction and left ventricular (LV) dilation in PMCA1cko hearts as evidenced by reduced fractional shortening and increased diastolic diameter (both p<0.05), whilst function in PMCA1f/f TAC controls remained preserved. This was accompanied by an increase in normalised lung weight in PMCA1cko mice compared to sham operated and TAC controls (p<0.05) indicative of pulmonary congestion and a progression into LV failure, despite comparable hypertrophic growth amongst the two TAC cohorts. Hemodynamic analysis following LV catheterisation revealed contractility, as measured by left ventricular elastance (Ees), to be increased in controls after TAC (PMCA1f/f TAC 12.69 ± 1.63 vs sham 7.02 ± 1.11 mmHg/μl, p<0.05), a change which was not reciprocated in knockout hearts (PMCA1cko TAC 7.70 ± 1.19 vs sham 7.22 ± 1.55 mmHg/μl). To examine whether altered calcium handling could be the underlying cause of the observed phenotype, cardiomyocytes were isolated following one week TAC and loaded with Indo-1, prior to the onset of failure in PMCA1cko hearts. Compatible with an increase in Ees, systolic calcium levels were higher in PMCA1f/f myocytes following pressure overload compared to sham controls (p<0.05), whilst PMCA1cko TAC myocytes displayed equivalent peak calcium levels to their respective sham controls. These results suggest that PMCA1 may play a necessary role in enhancing calcium cycling during the early response to pressure overload, and that disrupting this gene may increase the susceptibility to heart failure under these conditions. This may provide first evidence of a novel genetic basis for the development of heart failure in a proportion of hypertensive patients.