RATIONALE: Sirtuin 3 (SIRT3) is a mitochondrial protein deacetylase that maintains basal ATP yield and its expression level is increased by fasting, exercise, and some NAD+ intermediates. We recently reported that the glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor agonist exendin-4 (Ex-4) ameliorated cardiac mitochondrial remodeling in diabetic cardiomyopathy via increase in cardiac cyclic AMP (AJP2013). Because changes in cyclic AMP level is regulated by adenylyl cyclase which is one of the downstream target of Ex-4, we hypothesized that SIRT3 may involve in the Ex-4-mediated myocardial reverse remodeling of mitochondria in diabetic mice.
METHODS: Type 2 diabetic Mice (16-week old male) were allocated into experimental groups as follows: Ex-4 (24 nmole/kg/day, subcutaneously administrated by osmotic pump for 40 days, DIO/Ex-4) and vehicle control (DIO/CON). Heart samples and cultured rat neonatal cardiomyocytes were subjected to mitochondrial fractionation using density gradient.
RESULTS: Cardiac cyclic AMP concentration and phosphorylation of CREB were elevated in DIO-ex4, suggesting successful administration of Ex-4. Electron microscopic analysis revealed that Ex-4 reversed destroyed cristae structure and defragmented mitochondria of DIO/CON heart. The ratio of expression levels of Mitofusin-1 (Mfn1) and mitofusin-2 (Mfn2) was consistently suppressed by Ex-4 treatment, suggesting normalization of mitochondrial morphology. Of note, DIO-CON exhibited marked decrease in cardiac SIRT3 level compared to lean/nondiabetic counterpart, which was reversed by exendin-4 treatment. Pharmacological production of intracellular cAMP levels (Isoprotelenol (10 microM) and 8-bromo-cyclic AMP (1 mM)) increased SIRT3 mRNA in cultured primary cardiomyocytes. The AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) inhibitition blocked the increase in SIRT3 mRNA, indicating that the SIRT3 expression was regulated by AMPK-dependent manner.
CONCLUSIONS: Our results indicate that Ex-4 reversed abnormal suppression of SIRT3 in mitochondria via activating the PKA/AMPK-dependent pathway.