Introduction: Alterations in expression and activity of different genes have been implicated in the pathogenesis of heart failure. Our lab has shown that HDAC-repressor complexes play a critical role in the upregulation Sodium Calcium Exchanger (Ncx1) and HDAC inhibition causes changes that attenuated cardiac remodeling during cardiac hypertrophy and heart failure. Thus, treatment with HDAC inhibitors has been proposed as a potential strategy for treatment of cardiac hypertrophy and heart failure. HDAC inhibitors repress deacetylase activity but we propose that they also affect HDAC confirmation and interaction with other protein factors. We hypothesize that HDAC inhibitors affect the stability of the co-repressor complex with specific transcription factors and that this effect is dependent on the transcription factor.
Results: Inhibition of HDACs in adult cardiomyocytes results in the greater stabilization of HDACs with co-repressor molecules that were recruited to the NCX1 promoter through Nkx2.5 transcription factor. HDAC class I specific inhibitor, MS 275 demonstrated stronger association between HDACs and co-repressors while other Class I inhibitors, PD106 and BML 210 failed on showing this phenomenal. The results suggested that class I HDACs inhibitors may affect formations of HDAC-complex via alternated active site interactions other than chelating with zinc binding domain. These results compliment ChIP experiments which also demonstrate the different recruitments of Sin3a at the proximal promoter of NCX1. In vivo analysis on HDAC5 knockout mice reveal that the Sin3a-HDAC1/2 repressor complex is not recruited to the Ncx1 promoter in the absence of HDAC5, indicating not only Class I HDAC but also Class II HDACs play an important role on HDAC-complex formation.
Conclusions: This work gives insight into part of the molecular mechanism of how HDAC inhibitors can affect the stability of the HDAC co-repressor complex in cardiac hypertrophy and heart failure. In addition, we demonstrated the Class IIa HDACs are required for the recruitment of the Sin3a/HDAC1/2 co-repressor complex to specific transcription factors on the target promoter.