Peroxiredoxin II (prxII), a cytosolic form of the anti-oxidant peroxiredoxin family, was recently found to be decreased in failing human hearts. Interestingly, in hyperdynamic hearts of two genetically modified mouse models with: a) phospholamban ablation; and b) overexpression of the active inhibitor-1 of protein phosphatase 1, the levels of this cellular peroxidase (prxII) were markedly increased. Acute overexpression of prxII by adenoviral-delivery in adult rat cardiomyocytes (Ad-prxII) was associated with decreases in the basal rates of contraction and relaxation, as well as calcium kinetics. Accordingly, Ad-prxII-AS infected cardiomyocytes exhibited enhanced contractile parameters and Ca-kinetics. The depressed or increased contractility by Ad-prxII or Ad-prxII-AS was associated with parallel decreases or increases in phosphorylation of phospholamban (Ser16 and Thr17). To determine the in vivo effects of prxII on cardiac contractility, three transgenic lines (TG) with 2-3 fold cardiac-specific overexpression of prxII were generated and their cardiac morphologic and functional phenotypes were characterized. The TG mice exhibited no alterations in cardiac pathology or morphology up to 4 months of age. However, langendorf perfusions revealed that cardiac contractility, including the rates of contraction and relaxation (±dp/dtmax) as well as the left ventricular end systolic pressure (LVESP), were significantly depressed in TG mice (to 75, 76 and 63%, respectively), compared to WTs (100%). The depressed function was not associated with any alterations in the expression levels of key SR calcium handling proteins: SERCA2, total phospholamban, calsequestrin and ryanodine receptor. However, the levels of the phosphorylated PLN at Ser16 were found to be reduced to 50% in the TG mice, compared to WTs. These findings indicate that prxII, an anti-oxidant protein, may regulate basal cardiac contractile performance in vivo through phospholamban phosphorylation.