Statistical Methods for Cardiovascular Researchers

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Biostatistics continues to play an essential role in contemporary cardiovascular investigations, but successful implementation of biostatistical methods can be complex.


To present the rationale behind statistical applications and to review useful tools for cardiology research.

Methods and Results:

Prospective declaration of the research question, clear methodology, and study execution that adheres to the protocol together and serve as the critical foundation of a research endeavor. Both parametric and distribution-free measures of central tendency and dispersion are presented. T testing, ANOVA, and regression analyses are reviewed. Survival analysis, logistic regression, and interim monitoring are also discussed. Finally, common weaknesses in statistical analyses are considered.


Biostatistics can be productively applied to cardiovascular research if investigators (1) develop and rely on a well-written protocol and analysis plan, (2) consult with a biostatistician when necessary, and (3) write results clearly, differentiating confirmatory from exploratory findings.

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