Microdomain-Specific Modulation of L-Type Calcium Channels Leads to Triggered Ventricular Arrhythmia in Heart Failure

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Rationale:Disruption in subcellular targeting of Ca2+ signaling complexes secondary to changes in cardiac myocyte structure may contribute to the pathophysiology of a variety of cardiac diseases, including heart failure (HF) and certain arrhythmias.Objective:To explore microdomain-targeted remodeling of ventricular L-type Ca2+ channels (LTCCs) in HF.Methods and Results:Super-resolution scanning patch-clamp, confocal and fluorescence microscopy were used to explore the distribution of single LTCCs in different membrane microdomains of nonfailing and failing human and rat ventricular myocytes. Disruption of membrane structure in both species led to the redistribution of functional LTCCs from their canonical location in transversal tubules (T-tubules) to the non-native crest of the sarcolemma, where their open probability was dramatically increased (0.034±0.011 versus 0.154±0.027, P<0.001). High open probability was linked to enhance calcium–calmodulin kinase II–mediated phosphorylation in non-native microdomains and resulted in an elevated ICa,L window current, which contributed to the development of early afterdepolarizations. A novel model of LTCC function in HF was developed; after its validation with experimental data, the model was used to ascertain how HF-induced T-tubule loss led to altered LTCC function and early afterdepolarizations. The HF myocyte model was then implemented in a 3-dimensional left ventricle model, demonstrating that such early afterdepolarizations can propagate and initiate reentrant arrhythmias.Conclusions:Microdomain-targeted remodeling of LTCC properties is an important event in pathways that may contribute to ventricular arrhythmogenesis in the settings of HF-associated remodeling. This extends beyond the classical concept of electric remodeling in HF and adds a new dimension to cardiovascular disease.

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