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The nonischemic cardiomyopathies are a diverse group of cardiac disorders that frequently cause heart failure and death and are now recognized with increasing frequency. There has been substantial progress in the clinical recognition and understanding of the natural history of these conditions. Well-established and new techniques of cardiac imaging are also helpful in this regard. Basic scientists are elucidating the pathogenesis and pathobiology of individual cardiomyopathies. In this compendium, some of the most important advances in this field are reviewed. Scientific opportunities to enhance further collaborative research to accelerate progress are identified.