S1P–S1PR2 Axis Mediates Homing of Muse Cells Into Damaged Heart for Long-Lasting Tissue Repair and Functional Recovery After Acute Myocardial Infarction

    loading  Checking for direct PDF access through Ovid



Multilineage-differentiating stress enduring (Muse) cells, pluripotent marker stage-specific embryonic antigen-3+ cells, are nontumorigenic endogenous pluripotent-like stem cells obtainable from various tissues including the bone marrow. Their therapeutic efficiency has not been validated in acute myocardial infarction.


The main objective of this study is to clarify the efficiency of intravenously infused rabbit autograft, allograft, and xenograft (human) bone marrow-Muse cells in a rabbit acute myocardial infarction model and their mechanisms of tissue repair.

Methods and Results:

In vivo dynamics of Nano-lantern–labeled Muse cells showed preferential homing of the cells to the postinfarct heart at 3 days and 2 weeks, with ≈14.5% of injected GFP (green fluorescent protein)-Muse cells estimated to be engrafted into the heart at 3 days. The migration and homing of the Muse cells was confirmed pharmacologically (S1PR2 [sphingosine monophosphate receptor 2]–specific antagonist JTE-013 coinjection) and genetically (S1PR2-siRNA [small interfering ribonucleic acid]–introduced Muse cells) to be mediated through the S1P (sphingosine monophosphate)–S1PR2 axis. They spontaneously differentiated into cells positive for cardiac markers, such as cardiac troponin-I, sarcomeric α-actinin, and connexin-43, and vascular markers. GCaMP3 (GFP-based Ca calmodulin probe)-labeled Muse cells that engrafted into the ischemic region exhibited increased GCaMP3 fluorescence during systole and decreased fluorescence during diastole. Infarct size was reduced by ≈52%, and the ejection fraction was increased by ≈38% compared with vehicle injection at 2 months, ≈2.5 and ≈2.1 times higher, respectively, than that induced by mesenchymal stem cells. These effects were partially attenuated by the administration of GATA4-gene–silenced Muse cells. Muse cell allografts and xenografts efficiently engrafted and recovered functions, and allografts remained in the tissue and sustained functional recovery for up to 6 months without immunosuppression.


Muse cells may provide reparative effects and robust functional recovery and may, thus, provide a novel strategy for the treatment of acute myocardial infarction.

Related Topics

    loading  Loading Related Articles