Extracellular Vesicles and the Application of System Biology and Computational Modeling in Cardiac Repair

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Recent literature suggests that extracellular vesicles (EVs), secreted from most cells and containing cell-specific cargo of proteins, lipids, and nucleic acids, are major driver of intracellular communication in normal physiology and pathological conditions. The recent evidence on stem/progenitor cell EVs as potential therapeutic modality mimicking their parental cell function is exciting because EVs could possibly be used as a surrogate for the stem cell–based therapy, and this regimen may overcome certain roadblocks identified with the use of stem/progenitor cell themselves. This review provides a comprehensive update on our understanding on the role of EVs in cardiac repair and emphasizes the applications of stem/progenitor cell–derived EVs as therapeutics and discusses the current challenges associated with the EV therapy.

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