Heart failure (HF) is a complex syndrome with an enormous societal burden in terms of cost, morbidity, and mortality. Natriuretic peptide testing is now widely used to support diagnosis, prognostication, and management of patients with HF and are incorporated into HF clinical practice guidelines. Beyond the natriuretic peptides, novel biomarkers may supplement traditional clinical and laboratory testing to improve understanding of the complex disease process of HF and possibly to personalize care for those affected through better individual phenotyping. In this review, we will discuss natriuretic peptides and the more novel biomarkers by dividing them into categories based on the major pathophysiologic pathways they represent. Given the complex physiology in HF, it is reasonable to expect that the future of biomarker testing lies in the application of multimarker testing panels, precision medicine to improve HF care delivery, and the use of biomarkers in proteomics and metabolomics to further improve HF care.