Serum Bioavailable and Free 25-Hydroxyvitamin D Levels, but Not Its Total Level, Are Associated With the Risk of Mortality in Patients With Coronary Artery Disease

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Abstract

Rationale:

Bioavailable and free 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) are emerging measurements of vitamin D. Whether serum bioavailable or free 25(OH)D level is associated with mortality in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) is unknown.

Objective:

Our aim is to determine the potential association between serum total, bioavailable, and free 25(OH)D levels and the risk of mortality among patients with CAD.

Methods and Results:

We measured serum 25(OH) levels in 1387 patients with angiographically confirmed CAD from the Guangdong Coronary Artery Disease Cohort. Serum DBP (vitamin D-binding protein) levels were measured using a polyclonal immunoassay, and serum-free 25(OH)D levels were measured using a 2-step immunoassay. Bioavailable 25(OH)D levels were calculated using a previously validated formula. By the median follow-up time of 6.7 years, 205 patients had died, including 134 deaths from cardiovascular diseases. In multivariate analyses, low serum bioavailable 25(OH)D level was significantly associated with increased risks of mortality, independent of established cardiovascular risk factors, features and treatments of CAD, factors associated with vitamin D and mineral metabolism, and CRP (C-reactive protein). The multivariable-adjusted hazard ratios across quartiles of bioavailable 25(OH)D were 1.79, 1.35, 1.36, and 1.00 for all-cause mortality (P for trend=0.01) and 2.58, 1.85, 1.73, and 1.00 for cardiovascular mortality (P for trend=0.001), respectively. Serum-free 25(OH)D level was inversely associated with the risk of mortality, with the extreme-quartile hazard ratios of 1.64 for all-cause mortality (P for trend=0.024) and 1.97 for cardiovascular mortality (P for trend=0.013). In contrast, serum total 25(OH)D level was not significantly associated with all-cause mortality or cardiovascular mortality.

Conclusions:

Lower serum bioavailable and free 25(OH)D levels rather than total 25(OH)D level are independently associated with an increased risk of all-cause mortality and cardiovascular mortality in a population-based CAD cohort.

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