Utilization and impact on fellowship training of non-physician advanced practice providers in intensive care units of academic medical centers: a survey of critical care program directors☆,☆☆,★

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Background:Non-physician advanced practice providers (APPs) such as nurse practitioners and physician assistants are being increasingly utilized as critical care providers in the United States. The objectives of this study were to determine the utilization of APPs in the intensive care units (ICU)s of academic medical centers (AMCs) and to assess the perceptions of critical care fellowship program directors (PDs) regarding the impact of these APPs on fellowship training.Methods:A cross-sectional national survey questionnaire was distributed to program directors of 331 adult Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education-approved critical care fellowship training programs (internal medicine, anesthesiology and surgery) in US AMCs.Results:We received 124 (37.5%) PD responses. Of these, 81 (65%) respondents indicated that an APP was part of the care team in either the primary ICU or any ICU in which the fellow trained. The majority of respondents reported that patient care was positively affected by APPs with nearly two-thirds of PDs reporting that fellowship training was also positively impacted.Conclusions:Our survey revealed that APPs are utilized in a large number of US AMCs with critical care training programs. Program director respondents believed that patient care and fellowship training were positively impacted by APPs.

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