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A new anesthesia system, the E-CAIOVX (GE Healthcare) enables the continuous monitoring of oxygen consumption (VO2) and carbon dioxide elimination (VCO2) during the surgical operation. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prognostic role of intraoperative baseline VO2 and VCO2 in an emergency open abdominal operation.A total of 103 patients who had an emergency open abdominal operation were enrolled in the study. VO2 and VCO2 were continuously measured from the induction of anesthesia to the end of the operation.There were significant correlations between intraoperative baseline VO2 and body surface area (BSA; P < .001, r = 0.68), VO2 and tidal volume (P < .001, r = 0.59), and VO2 and baseline body temperature (P < .0001, r = 0.49). Also, there were significant correlations between intraoperative baseline VCO2 and BSA (P < .001, r = 0.70), VCO2 and tidal volume (P < .001, r = 0.70), and VCO2 and body temperature (P < .001, r = 0.41). Fifteen (14.6%) of the 103 patients died within 4 months after the operation without having been discharged from hospital. Baseline VO2/BSA was higher in surviving patients (123.7 ± 23.6 mL/min · m2) than the deceased (103.8 ± 15.6 mL/min · m2; P = .002). There was no significant difference in baseline VCO2/BSA levels between surviving (106.2 ± 20.1 mL/min · m2) and deceased patients (99.4 ± 21.4 mL/min · m2). In multivariate analysis, baseline body temperature lower than 36.2°C (P = .02), serum albumin less than 3.0 g/dL (P = .002), and baseline VO2/BSA less than 111.9 mL/min · m2 (P = .03) were independent factors.Baseline low VO2/BSA less than 111.9 mL/min · m2 was one of the poor predictors for the prognosis of an emergency open abdominal surgery.