Early veno-venous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation is associated with lower mortality in patients who have severe hypoxemic respiratory failure: A retrospective multicenter cohort study☆,☆☆

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Purpose:The purpose of the study is to compare outcomes in patients who had severe hypoxemic respiratory failure (Pao2/fraction of inspired oxygen < 100) who received early veno-venous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) as an adjunct to mechanical ventilation, to those in patients who received conventional mechanical ventilation alone.Materials and methods:This is a multicenter, retrospective unmatched and matched cohort study of patients admitted between April 2006 and December 2013. Generalized logistic mixed-effects models and Cox proportional hazards models were used to determine the association between treatment with ECMO that was started within 3 days of intensive care unit (ICU) admission and ICU and hospital mortality and length of stay, respectively.Results:A total of 2440 patients who had severe hypoxemic respiratory failure due to various etiologies were included, 46 who received early veno-venous ECMO and 2394 unmatched and 398 matched controls who received conventional ventilation alone. Compared to matched controls, ECMO was associated with a lower odds of ICU (odds ratio [95% confidence interval], 0.30 [0.13–0.67]) and inhospital death (odds ratio 0.30 [0.14–0.67]). In addition, ECMO was associated with longer times to discharge from ICU and hospital (hazard ratio, 0.42 [0.37–0.47] and 0.53 [0.38–0.73], respectively).Conclusions:In this observational study, use of early ECMO compared to conventional mechanical ventilation alone in patients who had severe hypoxemic respiratory failure was associated with a lower risk of mortality and a longer length of stay.

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