Prognostic value of extravascular lung water and its potential role in guiding fluid therapy in septic shock after initial resuscitation


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Abstract

Purposes:To explore whether extravascular lung water (EVLW) provides a valuable prognostic tool guiding fluid therapy in septic shock patients after initial resuscitation.Materials and Methods:We performed a retrospective study of septic shock patients who achieved adequate initial fluid resuscitation with extended hemodynamic monitoring, analyzing the prognostic value of EVLW and whether fluid therapy for 24 (T24) or 24–48 hours (T24 -48) after initial resuscitation with a recommended value of EVLW yielded a 28-day mortality advantage.Results:One hundred five patients with septic shock were included in this study, 60 (57.1%) of whom died after 28 days. For 48 hours after initial resuscitation, the daily fluid balance (DFB; T24: 2494 ± 1091 vs 1965 ± 964 mL [P = .011] and T24 -48: 2127 ± 783 vs 1588 ± 665 mL [P < .001]) and daily maximum values of the EVLW index (EVLWImax; T24: 13.9 ± 3.7 vs 11.5 ± 3.2 mL/kg [P < .001] and T24 -48: 14.4 ± 5.3 vs 12.0 ± 4.4 mL/kg [P < .001]) were significantly higher in nonsurvivors than in survivors. In multivariate regression analysis, the DFB (T24: odds ratio [OR] 1.001 [P = .016] and T24 -48: OR 1.001 [P = .008]), EVLWImax (T24: OR 2.158 [P = .002] and T24 -48: OR 3.277 [P = .001]), blood lactate (T24: OR 1.368 [P = .021] and T24 -48: OR 4.112 [P < .001]), and central venous blood oxygen saturation (T24: OR 0.893 [P = .013] and T24 -48: OR 0.780 [P = .004]) were all independently associated with the 28-day mortality. A receiver operating characteristic analysis revealed that area under the curve values of 0.82 (95% confidence interval, 0.74–0.91; P < .001) and 0.90 (95% confidence interval, 0.83–0.96; P < .001) for EVLWImax ≥ 12.5 mL/kg (T24 and T24 -48) predicted a 28-day mortality with sensitivities of 88% (80%-96%) and 95% (90%-100%) and specificities of 60% (46%-74%) and 76% (63%-89%).The EVLWImax was correlated with DFB with Spearman ρ values of 0.497 (T24: P < .001) and 0.650 (T24 -48: P < .001). Cox survival and regression analyses demonstrated that EVLWImax ≥ 12.5 mL/kg (T24 and T24 -48) was associated with higher risk and increased mortality, with adjusted ORs of 4.77 (P < .001) and 10.86 (P < .001).Conclusions:A higher EVLW in septic shock patients after initial resuscitation was associated with a more positive fluid balance and increased mortality, which is an independent predictor of the 28-day mortality in septic shock patients after initial resuscitation.

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